The Gulf of Mexico Is Still Dying

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Pathogenic Micro-organisms Proliferate Due
To Polluted And Poisoned GOM ‘Bioterrain’

by Gulf Oil Spill Remediation Cyber-Conference

There have been several significant developments over the past few decades in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) which now require special and immediate attention.  The multitude of oil spills — both large and small — require extraordinary remediation measures, as well as the application of safe and proven technologies which will not make the existing hydrocarbon pollution worse. There are other major sources of water pollution in the GOM which have also became apparent, particularly since the eye-opening 2010 BP oil spill.

The Gulf of Mexico is Dying: A Special Report On The BP Gulf Oil Spill

The BP Gulf Oil Spill drew the world’s attention to the GOM for a variety of reasons. The sheer volume of oil spilt was unprecedented, as were its profound and lasting effects on a large geographic area.  Because it occurred in such a large body of water, many population centers were adversely impacted as they continue to be up to this very day.  However, it was the incompetent and negligent oil spill response from BP that received the justified scrutiny of the entire world.

Some have since advanced the notion that global oil spill response has been forever changed for the better, because of how profoundly BP mismanaged the spill for all to see. In this regard, they speak of a literal sea change regarding the methodologies and modalities, process and procedure, science and technology that are now accepted by many of the nations of the world.

The entire world watched in horror as millions of gallons of the dispersant Corexit were used to ‘disappear’ the gushing oil in the Macondo Prospect throughout 2010 and beyond.  Disappearing the oil actually meant sinking it, after micronizing it, so that both BP and  the US Federal Government could be ‘applauded’ for a successful response.  However, the known health risks/dangers and environmental damage caused by Corexit became so well publicized that it has now been banned in those countries which have learned from the BP fiasco.  The following article provides more details in this regard.

Dispersant Use Like Corexit Sees Precipitous Decline Worldwide

The single revelation about the ramped up toxicity of Corexit-treated oil served to awaken many stakeholders about the safety of dispersant use in our coastal waters. More importantly, this issue also triggered a variety of concerns about the overall condition of the Gulf of Mexico.  Residents along the GOM coast, business owners, annual vacationers, property owners and the like began to research and discover the true state of the Gulf.

It was through a confluence of many disparate circumstances during the gushing, “ginormous”  oil volcano which brought to light the following critical observations about the overall status of the Gulf of Mexico. These various perceptions and insights, when considered in the aggregate and within a much larger context, have allowed to surface an assessment of the GOM which can no longer be denied or ignored.  Continue reading

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Downing Of Flight MH 17: False Flag Operation To Blame Russia?

Community Of Nations Ought To Be Asking “Qui Bono?”

Once again, it appears that CIA handiwork is all over another false flag operation designed at Langley in order to falsely accuse Russia of conducting state-sponsored terrorism.

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No matter how you look at this terrorist event — and it is a blatant act of terrorism — Russia had no reason to be involved; the Ukraine government had every motivation.  Especially when the Anglo-American Axis is using the CIA to inflame and incite, at every turn, the Ukraine civil war, does this manmade disaster have the fingerprints from The Company.

That an American ‘statesman’ of the stature of Strobe Talbott, who is the current president of the Brookings Institution, would publicly blame Russia shows where the US Intelligence establishment would like this to go.  The Western media has been on an obvious mission to control the predominate narrative being poured out there into the mainstream.

Strobe Talbott Blames Russia For Shooting Down Commercial Airliner

So who gains?  Russia ONLY loses.  The Russian-speaking rebels would only hurt their cause for independence through such a barbaric act.  The US coup-installed government in Kiev benefits greatly for many obvious reasons.  So does its primary sponsor — the USA military-industrial complex.   Continue reading

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9/11: Russia Presents Evidence Against US, UK And Israel Co-Conspirators?

Russian 9/11 Data Dump Reveals State Actors

9/11 was an Anglo-American black operation executed in collusion with Israeli Secret Services.” — 9/11 Investigator

Undoubtedly the 9/11 attacks on New York City and Washington DC are the most misrepresented by officialdom in US history.

Whereas the assassination of John F. Kennedy is now understood to have been a classic CIA Execution Plan, it does not come close to 9/11 in terms of the number and magnitude of outright falsehoods, misleading statements, fake science and fraudulent facts submitted by officials and agents of the US Government.  The ‘official’ 9/11 Commission Report stands as the most fabricated document ever produced by US tax dollars.  Not only did the investigation avoid every serious inquiry about how two steel frame building came down after being dustified in NYC, it also subverted every initiative to ferret out the truth.

That’s all about to change in 2014.

It appears that Russia has been conducting systematic data dumps on 9/11, the release of which represents more factual information on the attacks than any US Government source.  In the wake of the Anglo-American coup d’état conducted by the CIA and MI6 in Kiev, it appears that Russia has no more patience for Western interference.  Especially when nations are destabilized on Russia’s borders do the stakes in this highly consequential geopolitical chess match go up.

Since Vladimir Putin has no intention of starting World War 3, he can only respond to US-EU meddling by using asymmetric warfare on the internet.  Were the American people to understand that the US Federal Government perpetrated the 9/11 destruction, everything would change in a heartbeat.  Because the Obama Administration has shown no sign of aborting its planned takeover of the Ukraine, Russia is left with very few, but still quite potent option.

The following excerpt recently appeared on an alternative news website — Veterans Today — under the subtitle “Too Classified to Publish”.  Essentially this unprecedented release of ultra-secret and highly classified information illustrates Putin’s new tack toward Western intractability.  Simply put, Russia will no longer stand by idly while the Anglo-American Juggernaut projects it power wherever it so chooses.

clark4-800x555 Continue reading

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Locus Of Global Power Shifts From The West To The East

Anglo-American Axis Losing Power and Influence;
BRICS Alliance Gains

The Earth has always spun in the same way.  The planet rotates so that the rising sun always appears in the east and sets in the west, no matter where you happen to live.  In the same way, civilizations have both risen and fallen.  Religions and philosophies have likewise come into vogue as the sun moves from the East to the West.  And so it will be for the once dominant political economies of the modern era.

True to this timeless cycle of global transformation, the Marxist Communism of both the USSR and China disintegrated at the end of the last century.  Each nation was destined to be released from its own fatally flawed version of quasi-Marxist Communism.  Both countries have since struggled to find the form of governance and political economy which accommodates their societies and meets the needs of their people.  The challenge has been made more difficult in trying to find the right balance in today’s highly complex and interconnected world.  Another determining factor, that is often overlooked, is how well the system of governance fits the temperament of the current generation of leaders. Were there to be a gross mismatch in this regard, only dissension within and discord without will result.

Likewise, the Anglo-Amercian Axis (AAA), which includes the European Union and many other military and economic proxies, are on the cusp of seeing the demise of their brand of Corporate-Crony Capitalism that currently predominates across the planet.  Although there are different forms of capitalism found throughout the world today, it is this highly pernicious form of predatory capitalism, which has been administered by the Anglo-American Axis (AAA) since its inception, that is about to experience a similar fate as Sino-Soviet Communism did.

It has often been said: “As Russia goes, so goes the USA.”  

That time has now arrived.  Except that there are now those throughout the AAA who seem to feel that they can thwart destiny.  And, they are working triple time to forestall the inevitable, regardless that such destiny has been preordained for aeons.  How, pray tell, do the once dominant British Empire, as well as the now crumbling American Empire, feel they can stop the inexorable forces of national destiny and global transformation?  Here’s how one prescient author put it;

“Furthermore, the [Anglo-American] empire could no longer be sustained politically, financially, practically or ethically, as the seeds of its own destruction had fully sprouted.  The most fatal seed grew into that extremely corrupt and predatory form of corporate, crony capitalism which was so socially unconscious, and so environmentally unaware, it was quite doomed from the very beginning.”
(Source: GLOBAL MONEY MATRIX SELF DESTRUCTS)

History is replete with examples of once invincible empires and kingdoms falling in a night and a day.  All of them exhibited the very same symptoms before their collapse, as we see manifesting today wherever Anglo-American capitalism has prevailed.  Therefore, it behooves those who rule the realm to let nature takes it course, as it did with, Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome and all the other ‘great’ empires of antiquity.  Just as the center of power moved from Rome to London to Washington over centuries, so to will the dominant nations move westward to the slowly emerging powerhouses of the East — toward Asia. Continue reading

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The WAR for the Ukraine: What’s the real story?

The Latest and Biggest Battle Between East and West Converges in the Ukraine

Originally posted at StateoftheNation2012.com

There have been many wars — terrible wars — fought on Planet Earth over the past 100 years.  However, the greatest war of them all could literally be around the corner, unless it is stopped by the people of this planet. The epic confrontation in the Ukraine presents the most dangerous and unprecedented conflict between the world’s superpowers since the breakup of the Soviet Union.  Truly, this clash between East and West represents an economic, political and religious battleground that will dwarf every other war save WWI and WWII.  If the conflict in the Ukraine is not resolved peacefully, it has the potential of evolving into a full blown World War III scenario.

That may sound like hyperbole until you read what is truly at stake for both sides of this War of the Titans. There is a very serious settling of scores going on with this intensifying skirmish that has multiple roots in history. On the one side, the real perpetrators want to get even as they so often do. On the other side, there is the inexorable force of destiny which compels them to assume a courageous stance toward a seemingly intractable situation.

The Ukraine conflict is fundamentally a war between East and West, between radically different cultures, different races, different religious orientations, and between very different people.  Because of the profound lack of understanding on the part of the West, as well as the desperate agenda which they are fully committed to, it appears that this war will play out in some fashion no matter what.  That doesn’t mean the world will once again be drenched in a hail of bullets and bombs.  The post-modern battlefield often migrates into the economic sectors and financial realms, as this one has with the imposition of the Anglo-American sanction regime.

Because of the inherent combustibility driven by numerous historical animosities and cultural hatreds, financial necessities and economic pressures, there is just no telling how this ongoing saga will end up.  While there are several weighty co-factors at work, there are also numerous variables which can short-circuit the extremely precarious current trajectory toward full scale war.  Were that to happen, this world will be saved from untold trial and tribulation.  If on the other hand war does break out, things will change very quickly depending on where one is domiciled on the planet.

Here are some of the primary financial and economic co-factors which have been exerting unparalleled pressures on both the West and the East:

• The Western banking system is broke, busted and disgusted.  The banks are living on borrowed time and want more borrowed time before they literally go bust.  The ever-increasing number of suicides of high-level bankers stands as testimony as to how disgusted either the bankers are, their bosses are, and/or both are.  Because there are now so many banks that have been identified as TBTF (Too BIG To Fail), the amount of necessary support from the Federal Reserve is now untenable.  This single dynamic has compelled the Western powers to steal money, precious metals, real estate, and whole national economies (read: the Ukraine) wherever they can.

• The fractional reserve banking system and fiat monopoly money it creates has always had an end date built into the fatally flawed model, which no one ever talks about because it’s simply too scary to consider.  With each passing day, the entire civilization gets closer to that termination date.  Those who sit at the peak of the Global Economic and Financial Control Matrix (GE&FCM) know the realities which they are personally facing. They also are grimly aware of the ultimate outcomes for the world-at-large.  Hence, they do WHATEVER they can to forestall the date of doom.   Continue reading

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The Government-Corporate Complex Takes Complete Control Of The USA

The Real 800 Pound Gorilla That Controls The Realm

No one can deny the effects that the Military-Industrial Complex (MIC) has had on the United States of America.  President Dwight D. Eisenhower aptly warned the world what would inevitably develop when any nation commits itself to a perpetual war economy. Or, maintains such a large military during peacetime.

However, very few understand that the MIC was only one component of a much larger complex now known as the Government-Corporate Complex.  Truly, it is the Government-Corporate Complex (GCC) which poses a much greater threat to world peace and social order, global financial security and economic stability, as well as the integrity of the biosphere and environmental protection.

Was the Military-Industrial Complex actually a red herring?

Studying the MIC as a microcosm of the GCC can be quite instructive and revealing about how the much bigger GCC entity operates throughout the world today. It it true that even in times of relative peace, the MIC does everything within its power to ensure it’s prosperity, just as the Department of Defense (read War) does everything to ensure its survival during periods without war.  In so doing, the MIC has been hard-wired from its very inception to guarantee the millions employed by the countless defense-related industries and services a paycheck, no matter what the prospects for war-making.  Which is one of the primary reasons why so much enthusiastic support for all things military has always reigned supreme in the political process of the USA.  And so it will for the foreseeable future. 

However, there is a much more profound reason about how and why the USA was destined to become the “Military Arm of the New World Order“.  The very notion of the Military-Industrial Complex was first publicized as both a diversion away from as well as an unwitting clue about the “real 800 pound gorilla” that has been clandestinely flexing its muscles across the planet for many decades, if not centuries.

23_LMi13 2 Continue reading

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The BIGGEST Coverup in USA History

What Obama and NASA don’t want you to know!

*Re-posted with permission from CCRG @ cosmicconvergence.org


We live in a time when common sense has become quite rare. Likewise, the voice of reason has fled humankind. For these reasons the following essay will be quite difficult for many to understand or believe or imbibe.

CONTEMPLATION:
If you were running the world during these tumultuous times, and you knew that events were on the horizon which would forever alter the entire planetary civilization, would you use the global mainstream media to tell everyone?
If those earth-shattering events were as unstoppable as they were fateful, would you disseminate this information?

If your answer is “Yes”, what will the 7 billion plus people who reside on Planet Earth do the next day? That is, after you tell them that their world is about to come to an end.
Will they still go to work?
Will they continue to support the Consumer Society?
Will many of them even want to get out of bed again after they hear what is coming?

Herein lies the challenge that is faced by the World Shadow Government (WSG).

Bear in mind that they know exactly what is around the corner. Their strategically-located observatories and high-powered telescopes give them access to scientific data and astronomical phenomena which is so compelling they feel they have no alternative but to:
• distract us
• deceive us
• divert our attention

Remember, there is one thing — more than anything else — which the WSG fears.

That is uncontrolled chaos.
They know—> that real mayhem in the streets will not treat them well.
Therefore, spontaneous social pandemonium is their greatest worry.
Unpredictable political paroxysms strike fear into their hearts.
Uncontrollable financial volatility will only serve to shatter their control matrix.    

With this understanding one can better comprehend the many unreasonable and irrational, mindless and foolish, crazy and insane actions taken by the World Shadow Government. Obviously they know that their time is up. Accordingly, they have less and less control – by the day – over how things will play out.

Yes, they may have a Plan A, a Plan B, and a Plan C. However, there are many emerging eventualities over which they have far less influence than what they are used to. Their bunkers buried deep underground may not be in the protected areas they once thought. Nor are their off-planet rendezvous sites as safe from solar system calamities as they once believed. Of course their experiments with time travel and interstellar travel, wormholes and parallel universes,  blank slate technology and invisibility cloaking have already proved disastrous. Continue reading

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9/11: The Ultimate Inside Job And False Flag Operation

Ten Reasons Why 9/11 Was “The Ultimate Inside Job And False Flag Operation”

1. The Twin Towers at the World Trade Center did not come down as a result of passenger airplanes hitting them; rather they were controlled demolitions.

2. Building #7 was never hit by an airplane and was brought down by a perfectly controlled demolition as proven by several different videos of the engineered collapse.

3. The airliner that never hit the Pentagon – American Airlines Flight 77 – was in fact a very purposefully aimed missile as demonstrated by the entry and exits holes.

4. Flight 93 did not crash in Shanksville, Pennsylvania since the coroner who showed up at the ‘crash site’ remarked that he never attended a crime scene so bloodless and lacking in bodies.

5. Insider traders have proven that they knew about the 9/11 attacks well before they happened; numerous large transactions prior to the attacks indicate foreknowledge by “men in high places”.

6. Air Defense was instructed to “Stand Down” by NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command) going against ALL protocols.

7. Cell phone calls made from the passenger airliners were faked, since reception was technologically impossible at that time and at that altitude.

8. All four ‘black boxes’ have been kept in absolute secrecy because of the incriminating evidence of the 4 staged attacks. How could there be black boxes if there were no commercial airliners involved?

9. “Reports* of molten metal in the foundations of the three World Trade Center skyscrapers are frequently noted … that the buildings were destroyed through controlled demolition.” (Per http://911research.wtc7.net)

* “The observations of molten metal are evidence for demolition in a number of respects, given the difficulty of explaining the requisite temperatures as resulting from random fires. For example, since molten iron is a by-product of the highly exothermic reaction of thermite, observations of quantities of the substance fit the hypothesis that thermite or thermite-like reactions were instrumental in the Towers’ destruction.”
“The president of Tully Construction of Flushing, NY, said he saw pools of “literally molten steel” at Ground Zero days after the 9/11 attacks.”
(Per http://911review.com)
Our comment: Molten steel found deep in the foundation of the Twin Towers???

10. Many of the Osama Bin Laden tapes, videos and photographs are all obvious fakes and fabrications according to several photo and voice experts.   Continue reading

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9/11 Commission Report: The Most Ridiculous Conspiracy Theory Of All Time

Without question the official 9/11 Commission Report, formally known as the “Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States”, represents the most unsupported, contrived and ridiculous work of fiction ever produced by the US Federal Government.  In fact, it represents the most implausible conspiracy theory in USA history, one that was foisted on the American people, as well as on the world-at-large.  The 9/11 Commission Report details a conspiracy theory so far fetched and full of pre-meditated fabrications that one is forced to ask the question:

If 19 Arabs with box-cutters in hand did not perpetrate this Crime of the Millennium – under the direction of a man in a cave in Afghanistan – then who might have had the incentive, as well as the extraordinary capability, to perpetrate such an audacious attack?”

"The Official 9/11 Commission Report ... the most contrived, unsupported, implausible Conspiracy Theory ever foisted on the Amercian People ... Utterly ridiculous!"

Of course, the much more profound question has always remained, “Cui bono?”.  Who really gains (or rather gained) the most by staging such a world-transforming and fear-generating event?  Did the Afghans or Iraqis have much to benefit by subsequently being carpet bombed into oblivion?  Do the Pakistanis enjoy regular drone attacks on their sovereignty?  Do the Iranians appreciate constant and unwarranted threats of aggressive military action from the real ‘Axis of Evil’ (USA, UK, Israel) for simply establishing a peaceful nuclear energy program?!  Since the answer is an obvious “NO” to each of these and similar questions, then who is it, really, that stood to gain (and has actually gained) the most from this highly calculated and coordinated  false flag operation.

Bear in mind that 9/11 has been quite effectively utilized by the political class, within certain nations around the globe, to inaugurate a full-blown, worldwide War on Terror.  Which nations?  The USA. Israel.  The UK.  France. Germany.  Australia.  Canada.  Germany.  Italy. 

This list does include the only countries in the world that could have possibly pulled off such a sophisticated attack or possessed the capability to assist in such a plot — a convoluted scheme which included fake airliners, cruise missiles, diverted and disposed of 757’s, impossible cell phone calls from flights at 30,000 feet, total control over all surveillance cameras, etc.  Shall we go on for those who still don’t get it?

For the uninitiated, please be aware of the following documented facts before you quit reading this exposé.  They may very well be the most important revelations you’ll ever read about 9/11.  Each of these facts overturns the uniquely telling and significant falsehoods that the US Federal Government has disseminated in the wake of these false flag attacks

However, before we go deeper into the false flag nature of this operation dissect the true conspiracy behind this crime against humanity, it would be wise to first understand the seriousness of the following ten falsehoods. Each of them, even when considered individually, is understood by many around the world to conclusively overturn the impossible and nonsensical conclusions issued by the 9/11 Commission Report.

Continue reading

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Barack Hussein Obama: The Ultimate Manchurian Candidate

Has anyone ever seen anything like it?! Is there any constitutional crisis even close to this unprecedented predicament in American history?

We have a sitting president who has posted a thoroughly fraudulent and forged birth certificate on an official White House website.

Do you get the picture yet?! REPEAT: We have a sitting President, of these United States Of America, who failed to submit the appropriate official records in support of his qualifications and fitness to occupy the highest office in the land the first time around. And now, as he runs for the same office again, he has submitted a fraudulent and forged birth certificate as evidence of being a natural born citizen of the USA.

This is a constitutional lawyer, who is surrounded by the ‘best’ legal advisers in the country, who has committed a series of quite serious felonies in pursuit of his political ambitions. Did you get that?

President Obama has access to the highest paid, most knowledgeable, experienced and powerful attorneys throughout the nation, and the best he can do is commit a number of high crimes and misdemeanors in the process of running for president not once, but two times a row.   Continue reading

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9/11 Ground Zero Workers Suffer Marked Increase In Cancer Rates

Scary statistic about Ground Zero workers



The tragic events that took place on September 11, 2001 are still threatening lives.

The Mount Sinai Hospital’s World Trade Center Health Program reports more than 2,500 rescuers and responders have been diagnosed with cancer - that’s a significant bump from last year’s 1,140 cases.

Scientists say the workers get cancer at a significantly higher rate than the rest of the population and studies suggest they also have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, asthma and other respiratory disorders.

The cancer is believed to be caused by the toxic debris that resulted from the collapse of the Twin Towers.

This is a smoke plume coming from the World Trade Center site seen on a weather radar. Air pollution experts say the dust that floated around for months after the attack was “wildly toxic” and carried more than 2,500 contaminants.

The Victim Compensation Fund is expected to receive more claims by the Oct. 14 deadline. As of June 30, it lists some 1,150 with more than 800 eligible for compensation.

 

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Detailed Health Hazard Information On Oil And Gas Drilling Fluid Components

Original Source:

Drilling Fluids And Health Risk Management

A guide for drilling personnel, managers and health professionals in the oil and gas industry

Provided by: www.IPIECA.org
“The global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues”

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Table 1: Health hazards of drilling fluid components

continued …

Drilling fluids and health risk management

A guide for drilling personnel managers and health professionals in the oil and gas industry Appendix 8: Detailed health hazard information on drilling fluid components

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Table 1: Health hazards of drilling fluid components (continued)

Component

Human health hazard

Base fluid

Poly alpha olefin (PAO)

Poly alpha olefins are of low acute toxicity and are not irritating to eye and skin.

Esters

Data on C8-C16 fatty acid 2-ethyl hexanol ester indicate that this ester is of low oral acute toxicity. In an acute skin irritation test in rabbits, minimal skin irritation was observed. The ester is not primarily eye irritant.

The ester was non-genotoxic in a micronucleus test. Results from an oral repeated dose study in rats indicate that the ester is not toxic at up to 1000 mg/kg.

Water

Fresh water

Fresh water is generally considered to be not hazardous to human health.

Sea water

Sea water has a low hazard potential for human health upon inhalation and dermal exposure.

Brine (see salts)

See Table 2 in Appendix 6, and below (osmotic—salts)

Osmotic—salts

Calcium chloride (CaCl2)

The acute oral and dermal toxicity of calcium chloride is low. The acute oral toxicity is attributed to the severe irritating property of the original substance or its high-concentration solutions to the gastrointestinal tract. In humans, however, acute oral toxicity is rare because large single doses induce nausea and vomiting. Irritation/corrosiveness studies indicate that calcium chloride is not/slightly irritating to skin but severely irritating to eyes of rabbits. Prolonged exposure and application of moistened material or concentrated solutions resulted in considerable skin irritation. The irritating effect of the substance was observed in human skin injuries caused by incidental contact with the substance or its high-concentration solutions. A limited oral repeated dose toxicity study shows no adverse effect of calcium chloride on rats fed on 1000–2000 mg/kg bw/day for 12 months. Calcium and chloride are both essential nutrients for humans and a daily intake of more than 1000 mg each of the ions is recommended. Genetic toxicity of calcium chloride was negative in the bacterial mutation tests and the mammalian chromosome aberration test. No reproductive toxicity study has been reported. A developmental toxicity study reveals no toxic effects on dams or fetuses at doses up to

189 mg/kg bw/day (mice), 176 mg/kg bw/day (rats) and 169 mg/kg bw/day (rabbits). (from: SIDS. Screening Information Data Set for High Production Volume Chemicals. (2005)).

Potassium chloride (KCl)

Potassium chloride is an essential constituent of the body for intracellular osmotic pressure and buffering, cell permeability, acid-base balance, muscle contraction and nerve function. Acute oral toxicity of KCl in mammals is low. In humans, acute oral toxicity is rare because large single doses induce nausea and vomiting, and because KCl is rapidly excreted in the absence of any pre-existing kidney damage. The toxicity upon repeated dose exposure is low. A threshold concentration for skin irritancy of 60 % was seen when KCl in aqueous solution was in contact with skin of human volunteers. The threshold concentration when applied to broken skin was 5%. No gene mutations were reported in bacterial tests, with and without metabolic activation. However, high concentrations of KCl showed positive results in a range of genotoxic screening assays using mammalian cells in culture. The action of KCl in culture seems to be an indirect effect associated with an increased osmotic pressure and concentration. No evidence of treatment -related carcinogenicity was observed in rats administered up to 1,820 mg KCl/kg body weight/day through the food in a two-year study. A developmental study revealed no foetotoxic or teratogenic effects of KCl in doses up to 235 mg/kg/day (mice) and 310 mg/kg/day (rats). Gastro- intestinal irritant effects in humans caused by KCl administrated orally have been reported at doses from about 31 mg/kg bw/day. One epidemiological investigation among potash miners disclosed no evidence of predisposition of underground miners to any of the diseases evaluated, including lung cancer. (from: SIDS. Screening Information Data Set for High Production Volume Chemicals. (2004)).

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Sodium chloride is an essential nutrient for the normal functioning of the body. It is important for nerve conduction, muscle contraction, correct osmotic balance of extra cellular fluid and the absorption of other nutrients. Although rare, acute toxicity may be caused by ingestion of 500–1,000 mg sodium chloride/kg body weight. Symptoms include vomiting, ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract, muscle weakness and renal damage, leading to dehydration, metabolic acidosis and severe peripheral and central neural effects. Long-term effects of high (>6 g/day) dietary sodium chloride include the development of hypertension, and may increase the risk of kidney stone formation and left ventricular hypertrophy. In rodents, extremely high doses of sodium chloride during pregnancy caused musculoskeletal abnormalities, foetotoxicity and foetal death and post- implantation mortality and abortion. Sodium chloride has been demonstrated to be a gastric tumour promoter

continued …

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2

Drilling fluids and health risk management

A guide for drilling personnel managers and health professionals in the oil and gas industry Appendix 8: Detailed health hazard information on drilling fluid components

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Table 1: Health hazards of drilling fluid components (continued)

Component

Human health hazard

in experimental animals and high sodium chloride intakes have been associated with incidence of stomach cancer in human populations with traditional diets of highly concentrated, salted foods. (Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals (2003), www.food.gov.uk/science/ouradvisors/vitandmin/evmpapers)

Zinc bromide (ZnBr2)

Zinc bromide inhalation can cause severe irritation of mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. Symptoms may include burning sensation, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea and vomiting. High concentrations may cause lung damage. Ingestion of zinc bromide can cause severe burns of the mouth, throat, and stomach. Can cause sore throat, vomiting and diarrhoea. Ingestions are usually promptly rejected by vomiting, but sufficient absorption may occur to produce central nervous system, eye and brain effects. Symptoms may include skin rash, blurred vision and other eye effects, drowsiness, irritability, dizziness, mania, hallucinations, and coma.

Causes severe skin irritation with redness, itching and pain. May cause burns, especially if skin is wet or moist. Can cause severe eye irritation or burns with eye damage.

Repeated or prolonged exposure by any route may cause skin rashes (bromaderma). Repeated ingestion of small amounts may cause central nervous system depression, including depression, ataxia, psychoses, memory loss, irritability and headache.

Calcium bromide (CaBr2)

Calcium bromide brine is a highly concentrated aqueous solution of calcium bromide and calcium chloride. It is used extensively in the oil industry. This solution and its components are recognized as causes of skin injury and information is available from the manufacturers on their safe use and handling. Two patients who were injured following unprotected skin exposure to this solution and one patient who was injured following exposure to calcium chloride powder are reported. All sustained skin injuries characterized by an absence of pain and a delayed clinical appearance of the full extent of the injury. Furthermore healing was complicated by graft loss or was slow. Although organic bromine compounds are recognized as a cause of skin injuries, no previous reports of such injuries to humans secondary to calcium chloride or bromide exposure were found in the medical literature. Our experience with these patients is described. (Saeed et al., Burns; 23 (7–8)32. 1997. 634–637)

Sodium bromide (NaBr)

Sodium bromide is of low acute oral toxicity. Sodium bromide is expected to be a slight to moderate eye irritant. Repeated or prolonged skin contact may cause irritation and superficial burns. Available data indicate that sodium bromide may act as a teratogen (behavioural effects).

Sodium formate (NaCOOH)

Sodium formate is of low acute oral toxicity (LD50 oral rat > 3000 mg/kg). Data show that sodium formate is slightly irritating to the eye. Based on read-across from caesium formate, sodium formate is expected to be slightly irritating to skin. Sodium formate is not expected to be a skin sensitizer. Sodium formate at 1% in drinking water did not produce clinically adverse effects in rats after administration for approximately

18 months. Sodium formate is not genotoxic in vitro or in vivo. Based on read-across with calcium formate, sodium formate is not expected to be reprotoxic or carcinogenic.

Potassium formate (KCOOH)

Potassium formate is of low acute oral toxicity (LD50 oral mouse 5500 mg/kg). Data show that potassium formate is slightly irritating to the eye. Based on read-across from caesium formate, potassium formate is expected to be slightly irritating to skin. Potassium formate is not expected to be a skin sensitizer. Repeated- dose toxicity tests are not available; however, the metabolite formic acid did not cause significant toxicity to rats when administered in their drinking water at 0.5 and 1% for 2 to 27 weeks. Based on read-across with calcium formate, potassium formate is not expected to be reprotoxic or carcinogenic.

Caesium formate (CsCOOH)

Caesium formate solution (83%) is harmful upon ingestion (LD50 = 1780 mg/kg in rats), with clinical signs including depression, convulsions, respiratory distress, ataxia, and excessive salivation. Caesium formate monohydrate had low dermal (LD50 >2000 mg/kg) toxicity in rats, with signs of erythema noted at sites of application. Caesium formate solution (83%) was a slight skin irritant and a moderate eye irritant. Aqueous caesium formate (80% w/v) was not sensitizing to guinea pigs in a Buehler test. Repeated-dose toxicity tests are not available; however, the metabolite formic acid did not cause significant toxicity to rats when administered in their drinking water at 0.5 and 1 % for 2 to 27 weeks. The caesium cation is not expected to produce significant chronic toxicity. Caesium formate was not mutagenic in different in vitro assays. (National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), Australia, 2001).

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Table 1: Health hazards of drilling fluid components (continued)

Component

Human health hazard

Density (weighting agents)

Barite (Barium sulphate)

Studies in rats using a soluble salt (barium chloride) have indicated that the absorbed barium ions are distributed via the blood and deposited primarily in the skeleton. The principal route of elimination for barium following oral, inhalation, or intratracheal administration is in the faeces. Following introduction into the respiratory tract, the appearance of barium sulphate in the faeces represents mucociliary clearance from the lungs and subsequent ingestion. In humans, ingestion of high levels of soluble barium compounds may cause gastroenteritis (vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain), hypopotassaemia, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and skeletal muscle paralysis. Insoluble barium sulphate has been extensively used at large doses (450 g) as an oral radiocontrast medium, and no adverse systemic effects have been reported. No experimental data are available on barium sulphate; however, due to the limited absorption of barium sulphate from the gastrointestinal tract or skin, it is unlikely that any significant systemic effects would occur. The acute oral toxicity of barium compounds in experimental animals is slight to moderate. Barium nitrate caused mild skin irritation and severe eye irritation in rabbits. The lack of reports of skin or eye irritation in humans, despite its widespread use, suggests that barium sulphate, often used as a contrast medium, is not a strong irritant. Long-term studies of barium exposure in laboratory animals have not confirmed the blood pressure, cardiac, and skeletal muscle effects seen in humans and laboratory animals orally exposed to acutely high levels. Inhalation exposure of humans to insoluble forms of barium results in radiological findings of baritosis, without evidence of altered lung function and pathology. Animal studies involving respiratory tract instillation of barium sulphate have shown inflammatory responses and granuloma formation in the lungs; this would be expected with exposure to substantial amounts of any low-solubility dust, leading to a change in lung clearance and subsequently to lung effects. Currently available data indicate that barium does not appear to be a reproductive or developmental hazard. Barium was not carcinogenic in standard National Toxicology Program rodent bioassays. In vitro data indicate that barium compounds have no mutagenic potential. The critical end-points in humans for toxicity resulting from exposure to barium and barium compounds appear to be hypertension and renal function. The NOAEL in humans is 0.21 mg barium/kg body weight per day. (www.inchem.org/documents/cicads/cicads/cicad33.htm, Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 33, Barium and barium compounds.)

Calcium carbonate

Acute effects may include irritation of skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Based on an oral LD50 in rats of 6,450 mg/kg, calcium carbonate is of low oral acute toxicity. There is no adequate evidence for a tumour- promoting or genotoxic action of calcium carbonate. Effects on reproduction have not been shown. High dietary levels inducing maternal toxicity resulted in decreased fetal weights and delayed skeletal and dental calcification in rats and/or mice. There may be a silicosis risk in using impure limestone or chalk containing (3–20%) quartz. No adverse health effects have been reported in the literature among workers using calcium carbonate. High oral doses did not produce systemic toxicity in laboratory animals.

(Health Council of The Netherlands, 2003, calcium carbonate.)

Iron carbonate

Most data from iron compounds are derived from read-across with the ferrous salt iron sulphate. Ferrous sulphate has a low to moderate acute toxicity with a LD50 (rat) of 319–1,480 mg/kg. As ferrous sulphate is used in humans for the treament of anaemia, human data are also available. These indicate that the human LD50 is in the range of 40–1,600 mg/kg. Fatal doses are associated with gastric injury. Irritation data are scarce and indicate that ferrous sulphate may be irritating to skin and eyes. Ferrous sulphate is not a sensitizer. Genotoxicity data on ferrous sulphate are ambiguous. However. the overall weight of evidence from genotoxicity studies shows that ferrous sulphate is not genotoxic. Carcinogenicity is not expected. Ferrous sulphate is not a reprotoxicant. A study in calves fed up to 4000 ppm ferrous carbonate in diet shows that the calves were not affected. The tolerance for ferrous carbonate was higher than for ferrous sulphate.

Hematite

There are little data on hematite (or Fe2O3) available. The acute oral toxicity LD50 (rat) for Fe2O3 is greater than 10 g/kg. Upon eye contact some mechanical eye irritation may occur (dust). A carcinogenicity study in miners shows that haematite mining with low-grade exposure to radon daughters and silica dust was not associated with excess lung cancer in a relatively large cohort.

Ilmenite

There are no toxicity data available for ilmenite, or iron titanium oxide. It is expected that ilmenite is of low toxicity. There are no known hazards resulting from accidental ingestion of ilmenite sand as may occur during normal handling. Swallowing a large amount may result in irritation to the digestive system due to abrasiveness. Ilmenite dust may cause mechanical irritation of the eye. Ilmenite dust is regarded as general nuisance dust, but can be irritating if inhaled at high concentration. May cause symptoms such as coughing or sneezing.

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Table 1: Health hazards of drilling fluid components (continued)

Component

Human health hazard

Manganese tetroxide

Manganese tetraoxide is of low acute toxicity. Mn3O4 is not a skin irritant, nor a sensitizer. Mn3O4 dust may cause some mechanical irritation to the eye. Results from a repeated dose study in monkeys and rats exposed to 11.6, 112.5 and 1,152 μ Mn3 as Mn3O4 aerosol 24 h/day for 9 months, show no exposure related effects on pulmonary function, limb tremor or electromyographic activity.

There are several reports about manganese toxicity as a result of exposure to fume/vapour from elemental manganese and by inhalation of pyrolusite (MnO2). Long-term inhalation (years) of manganese oxides may cause chronic manganese intoxication affecting the central nervous system, potentially leading to extensive disablement. Health risk of MnO2 (widely described in literature) may be different from that of MnO, Mn2O3, and Mn3O4. The differences in oxidation states of the element Mn in these compounds may affect their bioavailability and distribution and thus their potential effects.

Viscosity

Bentonite (or other clays)

An important determinant of the toxicity of bentonite and other clays is the content of quartz (SiO2). Exposure to quartz is causally related to silicosis and lung cancer. Statistically significant increases in the incidence of or mortality from chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema have been reported after exposure to quartz.

Single intratracheal injection into rodents of bentonite and montmorillonite with low content of quartz produced dose- and particle size-dependent cytotoxic effects, as well as transient local inflammation, the signs of which included oedema and, consequently, increased lung weight. Single intratracheal exposures of rats to bentonite produced storage foci in the lungs 3–12 months later. After intratracheal exposure of rats to bentonite with a high quartz content, fibrosis was also observed. Bentonite increased the susceptibility of mice to pulmonary infection. No adequate studies are available on the carcinogenicity of bentonite. Long-term occupational exposures to bentonite dust may cause structural and functional damage to the lungs. However, available data are inadequate to conclusively establish a dose-response relationship or even a cause-and-effect relationship due to limited information on period and intensity of exposure and to confounding factors, such as exposure to silica and tobacco smoke. (Environmental Health Criteria, Vol. 231 (2005) 159 p.)

Organophillic clay (montmorillonite, attapulgite, hectorite)

In general, the acute toxicity of organophillic clays is low. Some organophillic clays are used in cosmetics. Data on a hectorite clay show that the clay is of low acute and repeated dose toxicity. The clay is not a skin or eye irritant, nor a skin sensitizer. In dust form the hectorite clay may cause mechnical eye irritation. Data indicate that the hectorite clay is not genotoxic. Data on reprotoxicity and carcinogenicity are not available.

Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Biopolymers

The biopolymers used are generally low toxicity compounds. Some of these biopolymers are also used as food additive. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Carboxymethyl cellulose

Carboxymethyl cellulose is of low toxicity. Carboxymethyl cellulose is approved for and used as food additive. (WHO Food Additives Series, Vol. 42 (1999) pp 175–9)

Polyanionic cellulose

Cellulose compounds are generally low toxicity compounds. Some of these cellulose compounds are also used as food additive. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information. (WHO Food Additives Series, Vol. 40 (1998) pp 55–78; and WHO Food Additives Series Vol. 42 (1999) pp 175–9)

Guar gum (polysaccharide)

Guar gum is a low toxicity compound, commonly used as food additive. Allergic rhinitis following repeated inhalation exposure to guar gum dust has been reported. (Lagier et al., 1990, J. Allergy Clin Immun, 85(4)
p. 785–790; Kanerva et al., 1988, Clin Allergy, 18(3) p245–252)

Emulsifiers

Soaps

See Table 2. Several emulsifiers may irritate skin and/or eye and may be harmful by inhalation or if swallowed. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Amines

See Table 2. Several emulsifiers may irritate skin and/or eye and may be harmful by inhalation or if swallowed. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Imidazolines

See Table 2. Several emulsifiers may irritate skin and/or eye and may be harmful by inhalation or if swallowed. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Polyamides

See Table 2. Several emulsifiers may irritate skin and/or eye and may be harmful by inhalation or if swallowed. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

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Table 1: Health hazards of drilling fluid components (continued)

Component

Human health hazard

Dispersants

Modified polyacrylates

Modified polyacrylates is a general term for several specific polyacrylates each having compound-specific toxicological properties. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Lignosulphonates

Lignosulphonates are complex polymers with a broad range of molecular mass and are derived from trees. The wood from trees is composed mainly of three components—cellulose, hemicellolose and lignin. In the sulphite pulping process, the lignins are sulphonated so they become water soluble and thus can be separated from the insoluble cellulose. A review of available toxicity data on several lignosulphonates by the US EPA indicated that lignosulphonates are of very low toxicity (www.epa.gov [Federal Register: February 16, 2005 (Volume 70, Number 31)]). The oral acute LD50 values are all greater than 2 g/kg. Repeated dose studies indicate NOAELs and LOAELs in the order of magnitude of g/kg/day. There is some (unsubstantiated) information that lignosulphonates given to rats before, during, and after mating at doses as high as 1,500 mg/kg/day did not cause adverse effects on reproduction or offspring. But at a dose level of 500 mg/kg/day there were histopathological changes in the lymph nodes of the mothers. There were no concerns identified for the mutagenicity or carcinogenicity of lignosulphonates. Based on the physical/chemical properties, and particularly on the large molecular weights of the lignosulphonates, lignosulphonates are not likely to be absorbed via any route of exposure. The only health effects of concern upon exposure to lignosulphonates are irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory system. For some lignosulphonates contact allergy has been reported (Andersson et al., 1980; Contact Dermatitis 6(5): 354–355). The toxicity depends on the type and size of the lignosulphonate. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Tannins

Tannins are polyphenols derived from plants. Due to their ubiquitous presence in food they have been subject of many toxicity studies. In general, tannins are of low acute toxicity. Tannins in food have been associated with several beneficial and adverse health effects (Chung et al., 1998 Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 38(6): 421–64). IARC has evaluated tannic acid and tannins and concluded that although tannins were carcinogenic in animals upon subcutaneous injection, no epidemiological evidence in humans was available to evaluate their toxicity in humans. (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man: Some Naturally Occurring Substances, Vol. 10, pages 253–262). Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Fluid loss

Synthetic polymers

Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Carboxymethyl celullose

See above (viscosity)

Polyanionic cellulose

See above (viscosity)

Starch

Starch is a low toxicity compound, commonly used as food additive.

Bentonite

See above (viscosity)

Modified lignites

Modified lignites are derived from brown coal. The toxicity mainly depends on the modification. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Asphalt

Asphalt, more commonly referred to as bitumen in Europe, is a dark brown to black, cement-like semisolid or solid or viscous liquid produced by the non-destructive distillation of crude oil during petroleum refining. When asphalts are heated, vapours are released; as these vapours cool, they condense. As such, these vapours are enriched in the more volatile components present in the asphalt and would be expected to be chemically and potentially toxicologically distinct from the parent material. Asphalt itself is considered to be of low toxicity. Asphalt fumes are the cloud of small particles created by condensation from the gaseous state after volatilization of asphalt. Symptoms associated with asphalt fume exposure are eye, nose, and throat irritation and coughing. These health effects appear to be mild in severity and transient in nature. Additional symptoms include skin irritation, pruritus, rashes, nausea, stomach pain, decreased appetite, headaches, and fatigue, as reported by workers involved in paving operations, insulation of cables, and the manufacture of fluorescent light fixtures. Asphalt fumes and vapours may be absorbed following inhalation and dermal exposure. Results of several in vitro mutagenicity studies on asphalt fumes are ambiguous. Results of carcinogenicity studies indicate that some asphalt fume condensates can cause tumours when applied dermally to mice. A meta- analysis of 20 epidemiological studies failed to find overall evidence for a lung cancer risk among pavers and highway maintenance workers exposed to asphalt. Under various performance specifications, it is likely that asphalt fumes contain carcinogenic substances.
(Concise International Chemical Assessment Document (CICAD) Vol. 59 (2004))

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Table 1: Health hazards of drilling fluid components (continued)

Component

Human health hazard

Resins

There are several types of resins, both naturally derived and synthetic. The toxicological properties vary. Some resins have been associated with skin irritation and allergic contact dermatitis. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Gilsonite

Gilsonite is a form of natural asphalt found in large amounts in the Uintah Basin of Utah. Workers can be exposed to the dust of gilsonite and to the fumes of gilsonite when heating or boiling the material. Gilsonite dust may cause mechanical eye irritation, while the fumes may be irritating to the eyes and respiratory system (Fairhall (1950) Industrial Hygiene Newsletter, 10(5): 9-10).

Industrial hygiene characterizations were performed by NIOSH at three gilsonite mills and nine gilsonite mining operations to measure occupational exposure to gilsonite and its constituents and to evaluate potential health effects (Kullman et al., Am Ind Hyg Assoc J (1989) 50(8): 413–418). Six out of seven bulk gilsonite samples had crystalline silica contents below 0.75% wt., no asbestos or other fibrous mineral compounds were detected in bulk samples from five different veins of gilsonite, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in any bulk samples. The authors conclude that the gilsonite dust exposure data are consistent with results of an earlier respiratory health survey of gilsonite workers in which the most definitive finding was an excess prevalence of bronchitic symptoms.

The respiratory health survey (Keimig et al., Am J Ind Med. (1987); 11(3): 287–296) showed that increased prevalences of cough and phlegm were found in workers with high-exposure jobs, but no evidence for dust- related pulmonary function impairment was noted.

Inhibition

Salts

See above (osmotic—salts)

Glycols (polyglycols)

Glycols, glycol ethers and polyglycols have different toxicities. Polyglycols are generally of low toxicity. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Silicate

The most commonly used silicates in drilling fluids are potassium silicate and sodium silicate. These ingredients combine metal cations (potassium or sodium) with silica to form inorganic salts. Sodium silicate administered orally acts as a mild alkali and is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of silicates has been related to the molar ratio of Si02/Na20 and the concentration. Potassium and sodium silicates have a low to moderate acute toxicity. Rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 ratio to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1,000 and 2,150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. A case report describes that neutralized sodium silicate produced vomiting, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal bleeding in human.

Dermal irritation of potassium silicate and sodium silicate ranged from negligible to severe, depending on the species tested and the molar ratio and concentration tested. Potassium silicate was non-irritating in two acute eye irritation studies in rabbits. Sodium silicate was a severe eye irritant in acute eye irritation studies. A skin freshener (10% of a 40% aqueous solution) containing sodium silicate was non-irritating. Sodium silicate in another three eye irritation studies was highly irritating, irritating, and nonirritating, respectively. Detergents containing 7%,13%, and 6% sodium silicate mixed 50/50 with water were negligible skin irritants to intact and abraded human skin. A 10% of a 40% aqueous solution of sodium silicate was negative in a repeat-insult predictive patch test in humans. The same aqueous solution of sodium silicate was considered mild under normal use conditions in a study of cumulative irritant properties. Sodium silicate tested in elbow crease studies and semioccluded patch tests, produced low grade and transient irritation.

Repeated dose studies in Beagles and rats showed no overt signs of toxicity.

Sodium silicate was non-mutagenic in a standard bacterial assay. Reprotoxicity studies with sodium silicate in rats showed some effects on the number of offspring at high doses but no effects on male rat fertility.
(Int J Toxicol Vol. 24 Suppl. 1 (2005) pp 103–7)

Polyacrylamides (partially hydrolysed)

There are various different types of polyacrylamides. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

pH control

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

Sodium hydroxide is a skin and eye corrosive. In a human 4-hour patch test, sodium hydroxide (0.5%) was a very clear skin irritant. Irritation of the nose, throat, or eyes was observed in workers engaged in cleaning operations and in a small number of users of an oven spray. Ingestion might be fatal, as a result of, e.g., shock, infection of the corroded tissues, pulmonary necrosis, or asphyxia. No increase in mortality in relation to duration or intensity of exposure to caustic dust was found in a group of 265 workers for periods ranging from less than

1 year to up to 30 years. (Health Council of The Netherlands, 2000, sodium hydroxide)

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Table 1: Health hazards of drilling fluid components (continued)

Component

Human health hazard

Potassium hydroxide (KOH)

Potassium hydroxide is a skin and eye corrosive. Following ingestion of (a solution of ) potassium hydroxide, rapid corrosion and perforation of the oesophagus and stomach, stricture of the oesophagus, violent pain in throat and epigastrium, haematemesis, and collapse may occur. When inhaled in any form, potassium hydroxide is strongly irritating to the upper respiratory tract. Acute exposures may cause symptoms in the respiratory tract including severe coughing and pain. Additionally, lesions may develop along with burning of the mucous membranes. Inhalation may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation, and oedema of the larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis, and pulmonary oedema (which can develop with a latency period of 5–72 hours). Chronic exposures may cause inflammatory and ulcerative changes in the mouth and possibly bronchial and gastrointestinal disorders. It has been reported that 10% of workers exposed to KOH during the production of ascorbic acid developed allergic dermatitis. At least one case of oesophageal carcinoma at the site of hydroxide- induced strictures has been reported. In mice, repeated applications of aqueous solutions (3-6%) of KOH to the skin for 46 weeks resulted in an increased incidence of skin tumours. Since tumourigenesis was associated with severe skin damage inducing marked epidermal hyperplasia, a non-genotoxic mechanism is assumed.

(Health Council of The Netherlands, 2004, potassium hydroxide)

Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) Lime

Acute exposures to calcium hydroxide may cause irritation, along with coughing, pain, and possibly burns of the mucous membranes with, in severe acute exposures, pulmonary oedema and hypotension with weak and rapid pulse. Solid calcium hydroxide is corrosive to the eyes and may cause severe injury to the skin. There are numerous case reports on accidental exposures to calcium hydroxide resulting in corneal and skin alkali burns and caustic ulcers. Generally, these effects are caused by the solid material and less commonly or rarely by solutions. Ingestion of alkali is reported to be followed by severe pain, vomiting (containing blood and desquamated mucosal lining), diarrhoea, and collapse.

Two epidemiological studies that addressed the association between cement-dust exposure and stomach cancer were considered insufficient to reach any conclusions on the association between cement dust exposure and stomach cancer. However, no adverse effects have been experienced by long-term exposed workers. Oral LD50 values of approximately 7,300 mg/kg bw were reported for rats and mice. No adequate repeated-dose toxicity (including carcinogenicity and reproduction toxicity) or genotoxicity/mutagenicity studies are available. (Health Council of The Netherlands, 2004, calcium hydroxide)

Citric acid

Based on many experimen tal data in animals and on human experience, citric acid is of low acute toxicity. The NOAEL for repeated dose toxicity for rats is 1200 mg/kg/d. The major, reversible (sub)chronic toxic effects seem to be limited to changes in blood chemistry and metal absorption/excretion kinetics. Citric acid is not suspected of being a carcinogen nor a reprotoxic or teratogenic agent. The NOAEL for reproductive toxicity for rats is 2500 mg/kg/d. Further, it is not mutagenic in vitro and in vivo. Also, the sensitizing potential is seen as low. In contrast, irritation, in particular of the eyes but also of the respiratory pathways and the skin, is the major toxicological hazard presented by citric acid.

(SIDS. Screening Information Data Set for High Production Volume Chemicals, 2004)

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

Sodium bicarbonate is of low acute toxicity. Oral LD50 values are higher than 4,000 mg/kg bw, and an inhalation study in rats using a concentration of 4.74 mg/l inhalable dust produced no deaths. Sodium bicarbonate is slightly irritating to the skin and eye of rabbits. There is no indication of any adverse effects of long-term use or exposure via any route. In vitro bacterial and mammalian cell tests showed no evidence of genotoxic activity. Sodium bicarbonate is not a reprotoxicant. Based on the available information there are no indications that sodium bicarbonate has carcinogenic effects. Sodium bicarbonate has a long history of use in food and normal handling and use will not have any adverse effects. Acute oral ingestion of high doses may result in a ruptured stomach due to excessive gas development. Acute or chronic excessive oral ingestion may cause metabolic alkalosis, cyanosis and hypernatraemia. These conditions are usually reversible, and will not causeadverseeffects. (SIDS.ScreeningInformationDataSetforHighProductionVolumeChemicals,2003)

Calcium oxide (CaO; Quick lime)

Occupational and accidental exposures have shown calcium oxide to be very irritating and corrosive to mucous membranes, eyes, and moist skin because of local liberation of heat and dehydration of tissues upon slaking of the small size particles and the resulting alkalinity of the slaked product (calcium hydroxide). Fatal burns have been reported after massive exposure. Calcium oxide was stated not to be sensitizing in an open epicutaneous test. Calcium oxide can cause severe irritation and burns to the eyes, oedema, hyperaemia, lachrymation, blurred vision, corneal opacities, ulceration, and perforation and loss of vision. Inflammation of the respiratory passages, ulceration, perforation of the nasal septum, and pneumonia have been attributed to inhalation of calcium oxide dust. Workers in lime factories for up to 40 years have experienced no ill effects from exposure to lime. (Health Council of The Netherlands, 2006, calcium oxide)

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Table 1: Health hazards of drilling fluid components (continued)

Component

Human health hazard

Wetting agent

Sulphonic acid

Sulphonic acids are a class of organic acids which have the tendency to bind to proteins and carbohydrates. The salts of sulphonic acids are the sulphonates. The toxicity of sulphonic acids depends on the specific type. Sulphonic acids may be irritating to skin and/or eye. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Amides

Amides are formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an amine and are, compared to amines, very weak bases. The toxicity of amides depends on the specific type. Amides may be irritating to skin and/or eye. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Polyamides

There are different types of polyamides with a different toxicity. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Rheological modifier

Fatty acids

Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and can be naturally derived (from animal or vegetable fat) or synthetic (from oil or wax). Fatty acids are generally low toxicity compounds. Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Polyacrylates

See above (dispersants)

Filtration control

Asphalt

See above (fluid loss)

Lignite

See above (fluid loss)

Gilsonite

See above (fluid loss)

Lubricating agents

Ester oils

Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Asphalts

See above (fluid loss)

Graphite

In humans, the pathological and physiological response to inhaled graphite flake is similar to that induced by nuisance dusts and cause only transient pulmonary changes. Repeated exposure to very high concentrations may overwhelm the clearance mechanisms of the lung and result in pulmonary damage from the retained particles in unprotected individuals. However, these lesions either resolve with time or are of limited severity. Driver et al. (1993), Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 06, 2094.

Other

Bactericides

Check the MSDS for the compound-specific information.

Lost Circulation Material (CaCO3, graphite, walnut shells, mica)

Lost circulation material may form a generic dust hazard. Mechanical irritation to the eyes and respiratory system may occur.

Ammonium bisulphate (max 63% aq. solution)

Ammonium bisulphate in solution is irritant to eyes and skin, and is irritating to the respiratory system. Inhalation of dust can produce irritation to gastro-intestinal or respiratory tract, characterized by burning, sneezing and coughing.

Sodium sulphite (approx 50% aq. solution)

Sulphites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulphite oxidase to sulphate. Sodium sulphite is of low to moderate acute toxicity. The oral mouse LD50 is 820 mg/kg. Exposure to the aerosol may irritate the upper respiratory tract. A three-day exposure of rats to a sodium sulphite aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema following exposure to 5 mg/m3, and irritation of the tracheal epithelium with 15 mg/m3. Between 2% and 5% of asthmatics are sulphite sensitive. Sodium sulphite may be irritating to skin and eyes. Positive reaction in human patch tests have been reported. Sodium sulphite is not considered to be reprotoxic; in rats, sodium sulphite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium sulphite was negative in genotoxicity studies. IARC concluded that sodium sulphite is not classifiable (group 3) as to their carcinogenicity for humans. (Int J Toxicol Vol. 22, Suppl. 2 (2003) p. 63–88)

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FWC News Release: Red tide causes large fish kill in northeast Gulf of Mexico

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Ukraine crisis is about Great Power oil, gas pipeline rivalry

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Ukraine crisis is about Great Power oil, gas pipeline rivalry

Resource scarcity, competition to dominate Eurasian energy corridors, are behind Russian militarism and US interference
Dr.Nafeez Ahmed
theguardian.com
Troops under Russian command at the Belbek airbase in Crimea, Ukraine
Troops under Russian command order Ukrainian soldiers to turn back before firing weapons into the air at Belbek airbase in Crimea. Photograph: Sean Gallup/Getty Images

Russia‘s armed intervention in the Crimea undoubtedly illustrates President Putin’s ruthless determination to get his way in Ukraine. But less attention has been paid to the role of the United States in interfering in Ukrainian politics and civil society. Both powers are motivated by the desire to ensure that a geostrategically pivotal country with respect to control of critical energy pipeline routes remains in their own sphere of influence.

Much has been made of the reported leak of the recording of an alleged private telephone conversation between US assistant secretary of state Victoria Nuland and US ambassador to Kiev Geoffrey Pyatt. While the focus has been on Nuland’s rude language, which has already elicited US apologies, the more important context of this language concerns the US role in liaising with Ukrainian opposition parties with a view, it seems, to manipulate the orientation of the Ukrainian government in accordance with US interests.

Rather than leaving the future of Ukrainian politics “up to the Ukrainian people” as claimed in official announcements, the conversation suggests active US government interference to favour certain opposition leaders:

Nuland: Good. I don’t think [opposition leader] Klitsch should go into the government. I don’t think it’s necessary, I don’t think it’s a good idea.

Pyatt: Yeah. I guess… in terms of him not going into the government, just let him stay out and do his political homework and stuff. I’m just thinking in terms of sort of the process moving ahead we want to keep the moderate democrats together. The problem is going to be Tyahnybok [Oleh Tyahnybok, the other opposition leader] and his guys and I’m sure that’s part of what [President Viktor] Yanukovych is calculating on all this.

Nuland: [Breaks in] I think Yats is the guy who’s got the economic experience, the governing experience. He’s the… what he needs is Klitsch and Tyahnybok on the outside. He needs to be talking to them four times a week, you know. I just think Klitsch going in… he’s going to be at that level working for Yatseniuk, it’s just not going to work.

[...]

Nuland: OK. He’s [Jeff Feltman, United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs] now gotten both [UN official Robert] Serry and [UN Secretary General] Ban Ki-moon to agree that Serry could come in Monday or Tuesday. So that would be great, I think, to help glue this thing and to have the UN help glue it and, you know, Fuck the EU.

Pyatt: No, exactly. And I think we’ve got to do something to make it stick together because you can be pretty sure that if it does start to gain altitude, that the Russians will be working behind the scenes to try to torpedo it.

As BBC diplomatic correspondent Jonathan Marcus rightly observes, the alleged conversation:

“… suggests that the US has very clear ideas about what the outcome should be and is striving to achieve these goals… Washington clearly has its own game-plan…. [with] various officials attempting to marshal the Ukrainian opposition [and] efforts to get the UN to play an active role in bolstering a deal.”

But US efforts to turn the political tide in Ukraine away from Russian influence began much earlier. In 2004, the Bush administration had given $65 million to provide ‘democracy training’ to opposition leaders and political activists aligned with them, including paying to bring opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko to meet US leaders and help underwrite exit polls indicating he won disputed elections.

This programme has accelerated under Obama. In a speech at the National Press Club in Washington DC last December as Ukraine’s Maidan Square clashes escalated, Nuland confirmed that the US had invested in total “over $5 billion” to “ensure a secure and prosperous and democratic Ukraine” – she specifically congratulated the “Euromaidan” movement.

So it would be naive to assume that this magnitude of US support to organisations politically aligned with the Ukrainian opposition played no role in fostering the pro-Euro-Atlantic movement that has ultimately culminated in Russian-backed President Yanukovych’s departure.

Indeed, at her 2013 speech, Nuland added:

“Today, there are senior officials in the Ukrainian government, in the business community, as well as in the opposition, civil society, and religious community, who believe in this democratic and European future for their country. And they’ve been working hard to move their country and their president in the right direction.”

What direction might that be? A glimpse of an answer was provided over a decade ago by Professor R. Craig Nation, Director of Russian and Eurasian Studies at the US Army War College’s Strategic Studies Institute, in a NATO publication:

“Ukraine is increasingly perceived to be critically situated in the emerging battle to dominate energy transport corridors linking the oil and natural gas reserves of the Caspian basin to European markets… Considerable competition has already emerged over the construction of pipelines. Whether Ukraine will provide alternative routes helping to diversify access, as the West would prefer, or ‘find itself forced to play the role of a Russian subsidiary,’ remains to be seen.”

A more recent US State Department-sponsored report notes that “Ukraine’s strategic location between the main energy producers (Russia and the Caspian Sea area) and consumers in the Eurasian region, its large transit network, and its available underground gas storage capacities”, make the country “a potentially crucial player in European energy transit” – a position that will “grow as Western European demands for Russian and Caspian gas and oil continue to increase.”

Ukraine’s overwhelming dependence on Russian energy imports, however, has had “negative implications for US strategy in the region,” in particular the strategy of:

“… supporting multiple pipeline routes on the East–West axis as a way of helping promote a more pluralistic system in the region as an alternative to continued Russian hegemony.”

But Russia’s Gazprom, controlling almost a fifth of the world’s gas reserves, supplies more than half of Ukraine’s, and about 30% of Europe’s gas annually. Just one month before Nuland’s speech at the National Press Club, Ukraine signed a $10 billion shale gas deal with US energy giant Chevron “that the ex-Soviet nation hopes could end its energy dependence on Russia by 2020.” The agreement would allow “Chevron to explore the Olesky deposit in western Ukraine that Kiev estimates can hold 2.98 trillion cubic meters of gas.” Similar deals had been struck already with Shell and ExxonMobil.

The move coincided with Ukraine’s efforts to “cement closer relations with the European Union at Russia’s expense”, through a prospective trade deal that would be a step closer to Ukraine’s ambitions to achieve EU integration. But Yanukovych’s decision to abandon the EU agreement in favour of Putin’s sudden offer of a 30% cheaper gas bill and a $15 billion aid package provoked the protests.

To be sure, the violent rioting was triggered by frustration with Yanukovych’s rejection of the EU deal, along with rocketing energy, food and other consumer bills, linked to Ukraine’s domestic gas woes and abject dependence on Russia. Police brutality to suppress what began as peaceful demonstrations was the last straw.

But while Russia’s imperial aggression is clearly a central factor, the US effort to rollback Russia’s sphere of influence in Ukraine by other means in pursuit of its own geopolitical and strategic interests raises awkward questions. As the pipeline map demonstrates, US oil and gas majors like Chevron and Exxon are increasingly encroaching on Gazprom’s regional monopoly, undermining Russia’s energy hegemony over Europe.

Ukraine is caught hapless in the midst of this accelerating struggle to dominate Eurasia’s energy corridors in the last decades of the age offossil fuels.

For those who are pondering whether we face the prospect of a New Cold War, a better question might be – did the Cold War ever really end?

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The Gaza Genocide Must Stop ! ! !

This Genocide Must Stop ! ! !

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The Magic Green Hat

The Magic Green Hat

By Guest Contributor

While in  Florida  I needed to go to the emergency room.

Not wanting to sit there for 4 hours, I put on my Magic Green Hat.


When I went into the E.R.,
I noticed that 3/4 of the people got up and left.


I guess they decided that they weren’t that sick after all. Cut at least 3 hours off my waiting time.
Here’s the hat: Below.
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It also works at Dept. of Motor Vehicles. It saved me 5  hours.

At the Laundromat, three minutes after entering, I had my choice of any machine, most still running.

If you live in  Texas , it might cut your wait time at the grocery store.

But, don’t try it at McDonald’s. The whole crew ran out the back door and I never did get my order!
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How Obama is a Direct Accomplice to Israeli War Crimes

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How Obama is a Direct Accomplice to Israeli War Crimes

 
by SHAMUS COOKE

To assist in a crime makes one a criminal by any legal standard. And the biggest crimes of all are war crimes, since they kill en masse and showcase the cruelest form of human behavior.

The fact that Israel is actively committing war crimes in the Gaza Strip is not open to debate, since a cursory glance at the conflict obviously exposes them in practice.

The two most glaring war crimes Israel is committing — as defined by the Geneva Convention — are the concepts of “collective punishment” and “necessity and proportionality.” Continue reading

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The Ten Plagues That Are Hitting America Right Now

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The Ten Plagues That Are Hitting America Right Now

By Michael Snyder

 

Why are so many plagues hitting the United States all of a sudden?  Yes, one can always point out bad stuff that is happening somewhere in the country, but right now we are facing a nightmarish combination of crippling drought, devastating wildfires, disastrous viruses, dying crops and superbugs that scientists don’t know how to kill.  And as you will see, we even have a plague of flies down in Mississippi.  So what in the world is going on?  Is this just a case of bad luck, or is something else happening?  At the conclusion of this article, please feel free to tell me what you think.  The following are ten plagues that are hitting America right now…   Continue reading

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Judge Glen Salter Orders Lexi Dillon Sex Trafficked out of U.S.A.

Judge Glen Salter Orders Lexi Dillon Sex Trafficked out of U.S.A.

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By Malinda Sherwyn
Russian DollsOn Wednesday, July 23, 2014, Lamoreaux Judge Glenn Salter ordered the removal of American child sex slave Lexi Dillon from the United States and into the hands of the foreigner Tustin Police said raped and sodomized her repeatedly. Lexi is a very sweet American nine year old girl whose life has been shattered by court-enforced unwanted sex with her father – according to Tustin Police, medical professionals, and TV news reports. Salter went further than ordering the removal of the American child from her native land, knowing it would be for sex. He issued an additional order that would prevent Lexi’s protective mother, a loving, health professional, from saving her daughter from the sex trade. Under the order, the mom could be arrested for just trying to rescue her daughter from the little girl’s unwanted handlers, people reportedly with criminal backgrounds. Recordings have shown the girl begging to be returned to her mother but the little girl’s pleas have fallen on deaf ears, including the uncaring ears of Congresswoman Loretta Sanchez, in whose district Judge Salter hands down edicts judicially trafficking little American children into the foreign sex slave business. Continue reading

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What in the World Are They Spraying? Part II

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What in the World Are They Spraying? Part II

Originally posted on Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Could Aluminum, Barium and Other Substances From Stratospheric Aerosol Geo-Engineering Programs be Destroying Eco-Systems around the World?

by Michael Murphy

A Closer Look.

What would you do if you were told that toxic substances being sprayed into the sky are falling to the ground and decimating eco-systems around the world? This very claim, made by concerned citizens outside the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting last month in San Diego, sparked my interest to investigate further.

The AAAS meeting hosted several top geo-engineering scientists who gathered to discuss the “plausibility” of implementing various geo-engineering programs throughout the world. One of the options addressed was the stratospheric aerosol geo-engineering (SAG) , AKA chemtrail program, where scientists discussed the “plausibility” of spraying aerosol aluminum, barium and other particles into the sky to block the sun as a means to “reduce” the Earth’s temperature. When asked specifically about the potential risks associated with using aluminum in the program as an aerosol, scientists replied by stating that they have not studied much about the risks associated with aluminum and added that something terrible could be found tomorrow that they haven’t looked at. When probed further about the deployment of existing aerosol programs, the scientists stated that no aerosol spraying programs have been deployed to date.

The concerned citizens I met outside the meeting were claiming quite the opposite. They came in protest after witnessing airplanes that they believe are regularly spraying aerosols into the upper-part of the sky. Many from this group have tested and found extremely high levels of aluminum, barium and other substances in their soil, rain, water and snow. Ironically, the substances that they reported finding are the same substances the scientists are “considering” implementing in the various aerosol spraying programs discussed at the meeting. They also believe that these substances are leading to the destruction of eco-systems and are coming from already deployed SAG programs. Due to the severity of this issue and my desire to know the truth, I was led to Shasta County in the Northern part of California to investigate not only the claims of what is being reported in the sky, but also claims of what is in the rain, water, snow and soil from what many residents are saying is the result of SAG programs.

The first stop on this trip led me to Dane Wigington’s beautiful 2000 acre property overlooking Lake Shasta. As we toured his breath-taking land, he pointed to multiple trails that blanketed the sky. He claimed the trails are present on most days above Northern California. Wigington referred to this as a “moderate spraying day”. Like many other residents in Shasta County, Wigington moved to the area to get away from the heavy pollution of Southern California that he grew up with as a child. His dreams of living off the land and becoming one with nature are now coming to a grinding halt as he is focusing his time and energy on the issue of geo-engineering.

Wigington became concerned about SAG when he began to notice dramatic changes in the solar power that he uses to supply his home and property. Owner of one of the largest residential solar systems in Northern California, he began to notice very high declines in solar power. It can be decreased by as much as 60 percent on what he calls “heavy spraying days”. Wigington said, “The trails are literally blocking the sun”. He also went on to say that he regularly samples the fine dust layers on top of his solar panels and other outdoor surface areas and frequently finds very high levels of aluminum and barium. Wigington believes that these are a product of SAG programs.

At the same time as finding decreased solar power, Wigington also began to witness dramatic changes on his property as the trees, grass, insects and wildlife started dying. This led him to get his first rain test just four years ago. The results were shocking as they found aluminum levels at 7 ug/l or 7 parts per billion. Although aluminum can be found around the world in smaller quantities, geo-hydrologists told him that this number was quite high. Since that time, he has had aluminum tests escalate as high as 50,000 percent to 3,400ug/l. That is literally toxic rain. These results prompted him to get additional pH tests from two USDA soil scientists which yielded more shocking results. The pH of the soil was 6.6 in one area and 7.4 in another. This is over 11 times the normal alkalinity of the soil which should be in the range of 5.0 to 5.5. It is important to note the tests were taken in the forest far removed from any highway or industry.

When asked what these changes can do to the ecosystem, Wigington replied by saying that it is devastating. He went on to say, “if this continues, we can only expect to see things get much worse. Not only are we seeing our trees dying here, but also a major decline in our wildlife and fish”. As a matter of fact, Wigington stated that according to The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, the salmon run, once seen in abundance in this area has declined from 769,868 in 2002 to 39,530 in 2009. That is over a 90 percent decline. Amazingly enough, this decline started occurring about the same period of time when residents began to see a dramatic increase in what they believe to be SAG programs. Wigington’s efforts to get these issues and test results addressed has been largely ignored by government agencies and officials.

After a closer look at Wigington’s property, my initial awe of the beauty and breath taking views led to sadness, frustration and anger over the contamination that is literally destroying the eco-system. This led me to investigate further by seeking an expert in biology. I packed up the car and headed north to the breathtaking town of Mt. Shasta. Mt. Shasta has been known for its beauty, clean air and as being the source of water for some bottled water companies. Many travel from around the world to mountain climb and vacation in this beautiful part of Western America.

Francis Mangels, BS in Forestry, Masters in zoology and a retired soil conservationist and wildlife biologist who worked for the U.S. Forest Service for over thirty five years, welcomed me into his beautiful home in the town of Mt. Shasta to discuss the “hidden” crisis that is occurring. Mangels alerted me to the rapid decline of fish in the nearby rivers and streams. Mangels brought me to a nearby creek that had an abundant supply of fish just a few years ago. Because the primary diet of the fish in the creek is aquatic insects, he performed a standard sample method to measure the amount of insects present. The samples he had performed before the alleged aerosol spraying campaign had yielded an average of 1000aquatic insects. Our sample yielded only 31. This is over a 96% decline from samples taken just a few years ago. Mangels stated that because the fish live off of the insects, they are literally starving. This rapid decline is likely due to changes in the chemistry of the water. The only changes that Mangels is aware of are the dramatic increases of aluminum, barium and strontium which he believes is from SAG programs.

We also took time to test the pH of nearby soil and snow which contained over 10 times the alkalinity of the normal pH. Mangels has evidence that this drastic change in pH is also due to the massive increases of aluminum. He stated that forests, fields and farm ecologies thrive in acidic soils. Aluminum acts as a buffer that increases alkalinity and can decimate ecologies in large amounts. Mangels also pointed out that snow on Mt. Shasta was tested and sent to the Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.) who found results that contained 61,100 ug/l or parts per billion of aluminum and 83 ug/l of barium. The normal amount of aluminum in the snow at Mt. Shasta is 0.5 ug/l. Drinking water allowable is 50ug/l. That means that the snow on Mt. Shasta has tested at 1200 times more poisonous than water standards allow for aluminum. Mangels said, “Mountain climbers that come from around the world are drinking the poisonous water from the snow on the mountain”. Mangels went on to say that government action is required at just 1000 ug/l of detected aluminum. Although he alerted several government agencies of these findings, no governmental action has been taken to date.

Mengels brought me to several other locations around the town of Mt. Shasta where he tested the soil, rain, water and snow that also yielded tests that revealed the pH to be over ten times the normal alkalinity. He went on to say that these types of changes in soil, water and snow are very uncommon except in other areas around the world where people have been witnessing what many believe to be spraying from SAG programs. Mengels also stated that these changes have produced an “ecological crisis” and will have horrible consequences if continued. Mengels said, “Losses to our economy will be incredible and are on their way as we speak. Tree growth will be decreased which will result in the loss of logging jobs. It is also causing the decline of naturally occurring plant and grass growth that occurs in the normally acidic soils of grazing pastures, resulting in the demise of our grazing industry, fishing industry, and worst of all, basic agriculture in Northern California.”

What is amazing is that these tests and many others throughout the world are largely being ignored by the very governmental entities that are required to address them. Some politicians, like Mt. Shasta City Council member Ed Valenzuela may choose to ignore the issue. Valenzuela was made aware of the mass contamination at a city council meeting where he stated that the city did not want to sample the water for aluminum because the request was a “can of worms” that would, “open a Pandora’s box” that the city would have to pay for. Although several local citizens volunteered to pay the $22.00 cost of the test at an EPA lab, both Republican Committee Chairman Russ Porterfield, and Valenzuela voted no to having the water tested. The mayor Stearns wanted the test, but was overruled by a 3-2 vote. This response is not uncommon as Mengels has presented this issue and his scientific data to over 15 local and federal agencies including Senator Feinstein and Senator Boxer’s office. To date he has received no response or action.

Is it a coincidence that the substances found in the rain, snow and soil in this region and around the world match the exact substances that scientists are “considering” implementing in various geo-engineering campaigns throughout the world? If not, then why have agencies and officials largely ignored these findings that are destroying our planet’s eco-system? Could it be that officials are fearful of exposing a massive cover-up of a world-wide ecological crime? Or is it the belief that this issue is simply too large and too complicated a problem for them to tackle? Whatever the reason for this ignorance, we need to demand that our questions and shocking test results get addressed not only in Shasta County, but in every part of the world. Our future on this planet is dependent on this issue being addressed.

Because this movement has come under attack from those who appear to be protecting the many political and corporate interests associated with SAG, it is essential that all of us around the world get involved by testing the rain, snow, soil and various outdoor surfaces and reporting the results to our elected officials and local environmental agencies. We must also reach out and educate all those involved with SAG who might be unaware of the environmental implications associated with their programs. Testing for pH changes and metals is simple and can be performed almost anywhere at a nominal price. Simple testing instructions and more information about geo-engineering programs can be found on the internet at www.geoengineeringwatch.org . Biologist Francis Mengels can be contacted by e-mail at bioguy0311@sbcglobal.net for more information on this issue, the tests he has performed and suggestions on testing procedures. Please take action by testing, reporting and demanding answers on this ever so important issue. Both nature and humanity depend on it. For more information, please contact me at whtagft@hotmail.com.

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What In The World Are They Spraying?

Aircraft_Condensation_trails

 

What In The World Are They Spraying?

By Michael J. Murphy

03 March, 2010
Countercurrents.org

What would you say if you were told that airplanes were regularly spraying toxic aerosols in the skies above every major region of the world? That is exactly what a group of protestors were claiming outside of the annual American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting that was held in San Diego from February 18-22. However, inside the convention center was a different story. The scientists gathered to discuss the “plausibility” of implementing various Geo-engineering campaigns throughout the world, all under the guise that the Earth has a man-made global warming problem that can be solved in-part by spraying aerosol aluminum and other particles into the sky to block the sun. When these scientists were asked about the possibility of existing aerosol programs; they stated that no aerosol spraying programs have been implemented to date. A little confused? Why would protestors gather outside of a meeting making claims that world-wide aerosol programs were under way if scientist were only now discussing the possibility of implementing these programs? Could it be that one of these groups is being deceived? Continue reading

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You Don’t Have To ‘Believe’ In UFOs Any Longer

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By James Neff
5-28-00

Originally posted at Rense.com

Whenever I hear the question “do you believe in UFOs?” in coversation I become immensely frustrated. To most of those who have devoted even a reasonable portion of time to acquiring an understanding of the phenomenon, the term “belief” simply doesn’t, and should never, apply. To use this expression shoves the UFO over into the category of religion or even fantasy, and nothing could be more inaccurate or counter-productive. UFOlogy is a scientific pursuit like any other. It takes absolutely no leap of faith, no mustering of imagination or whimsy for any rational mind to realize what is already a proven reality: Unidentified Flying Objects of an inexplicable class and character exist and are as real and verified as comets or the rings of Saturn (and may have been around just as long).

The simple fact of the matter is, UFOs (and whatever may be piloting them) are a substantive, verified and massively documented phenomena … but much of our culture and language perpetuate and cling to the erroneous notion that we’re dealing with some kind of specter or myth of hysteria or mass-societal halucenation.

I’ll go one step further. One might ‘believe’ in fire-breathing dragons or fairies … yet, there is no evidence whatsoever that either of these exist. However, one need only look at the facts now in evidence to see that actual ‘flying saucers’ (not merely “unidentified flying objects”) do, indeed, exist.

Those who know UFOs are ‘real’ need to make a serious effort to cease using and condoning that negative terminology of doubt inspired by our disinformation-driven culture. “Are you aware of UFOs?” (ie, “have you been educated on the existence of flying saucers?”) should have replaced “Do you believe in UFOs?” in both text and conversation long ago. We no longer are soliciting people to ‘believe’. Instead, we are (or should be) asking the uninformed to become educated to the facts. The issue of visitors to this planet, wherever (or whenever) they originate, is as vital an issue as any world geopolitical, religious, or economic affair or policy. In fact, it is probably far more important.  Continue reading

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The BP Gulf Oil Spill Continues To Sicken People Along The GOM

Medical Moment – “Shane’s Story – Come On Down to Destin! It’s All Good!”

July 20, 2014 at 2:42pm

Shane is a husband and a father and was the part owner in a thriving family business in Destin Beach, FL.  He did not go to his family’s vacation home in Gulf Shores, Alabama on July 24th 2010 due to the Gulf of Mexico Oil disaster.  Instead, he went to Destin Beach in Florida as he was told that “all was good” in Destin.  After going into that water in Destin, his life has been a living hell on earth.  Quote from Shane:

“In no way do I feel my own carelessness resulted in this injury as, I had no way of knowing after seeing the many ads and campaigns run by BP stating the areas were safe and free from oil at the time of my visit.  I feel BP shows gross negligence having pulled their oil crew workers off the line as of April 25th, 2010 having pulling workers off prior to my exposure in July 2010, as the workers were showing many of the exact same symptoms I have.” Continue reading

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Both MH17 & MH370 Bound For Same Location

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