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12.3: The Deuteron The determination of how the neutron and proton are bound together in a deuteron. The deuteron mass = 2.013553 u The mass of a deuteron atom = 2.014102 u The difference = 0.000549 u; the mass of an electron The deuteron nucleus is bound by a mass-energy Bd The mass of a deuteron is Add an electron mass to each side of Eq. (12.6) The Deuteron md + me is the atomic deuterium mass M(2H) and mp + me is the atomic hydrogen mass. Thus Eq.(12.7) becomes Because the electron masses cancel in almost all nuclear-mass difference calculations, we use atomic masses rather than nuclear masses. Convert this to energy using u = 931.5 MeV / c2 Even for heavier nuclei we neglect the electron binding energies (13.6 eV) because the nuclear binding energy (2.2 MeV) is almost one million times greater. The Deuteron The binding energy of any nucleus = the energy required to separate the nucleus into free neutrons and protons. Experimental Determination of Nuclear Binding Energies Check the 2.22-MeV binding energy by using a nuclear reaction. We scatter gamma rays from deuteron gas and look for the breakup of a deuteron into a neutron and a proton: This nuclear reaction is called photodisintegration or a photonuclear reaction. The mass-energy relation is where hf is the incident photon energy. Kn and Kp are the neutron and proton kinetic energies. The Deuteron The minimum energy required for the photodisintegration: Momentum must be conserved in the reaction (Kn, Kp ≠ 0) Experiment shows that a photon of energy less than 2.22 MeV cannot dissociate a deuteron Deuteron Spin and Magnetic Moment Deuteron’s nuclear spin quantum number is 1. This indicates the neutron and proton spins are aligned parallel to each other. The nuclear magnetic moment of a deuteron is 0.86μN ≈ the sum of the free proton and neutron 2.79μN − 1.91μN = 0.88μN. 12.4: Nuclear Forces The angular distribution of neutron classically scattered by protons. Neutron + proton (np) and proton + proton (pp) elastic The nuclear potential Nuclear Forces The internucleon potential has a “hard core” that prevents the nucleons from approaching each other closer than about 0.4 fm. The proton has charge radius up to 1 fm. Two nucleons within about 2 fm of each other feel an attractive force. The nuclear force (short range): It falls to zero so abruptly with interparticle separation. stable The interior nucleons are completely surrounded by other nucleons with which they interact. The only difference between the np and pp potentials is the Coulomb potential shown for r ≥ 3 fm for the pp force. Nuclear Forces The nuclear force is known to be spin dependent. The neutron and proton spins are aligned for the bound state of the deuteron, but there is no bound state with the spins antialigned. The nn system is more difficult to study because free neutrons are not stable from analyses of experiments. The nuclear potential between two nucleons seems independent of their charge (charge independence of nuclear forces). The term nucleon refers to either neutrons or protons because the neutron and proton can be considered different charge states of the same particle. 12.5: Nuclear Stability The binding energy of a nucleus against dissociation into any other possible combination of nucleons. Ex. nuclei R and S. Proton (or neutron) separation energy: The energy required to remove one proton (or neutron) from a nuclide. All stable and unstable nuclei that are long-lived enough to be observed. Nuclear Stability The line representing the stable nuclides is the line of stability. It appears that for A ≤ 40, nature prefers the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus to be about the same Z ≈ N. However, for A ≥ 40, there is a decided preference for N > Z because the nuclear force is independent of whether the particles are nn, np, or pp. As the number of protons increases, the Coulomb force between all the protons becomes stronger until it eventually affects the binding significantly. The work required to bring the charge inside the sphere from infinity is Nuclear Stability For a single proton, The total Coulomb repulsion energy in a nucleus is For heavy nuclei, the nucleus will have a preference for fewer protons than neutrons because of the large Coulomb repulsion energy. Most stable nuclides have both even Z and even N (even-even nuclides). Only four stable nuclides have odd Z and odd N (odd-odd nuclides). The Liquid Drop Model Treats the nucleus as a collection of interacting particles in a liquid drop. The total binding energy, the semi-empirical mass formula is The volume term (av) indicates that the binding energy is approximately the sum of all the interactions between the nucleons. The second term is called the surface effect because the nucleons on the nuclear surface are not completely surrounded by other nucleons. The third term is the Coulomb energy in Eq. (12.17) and Eq. (12.18) The Liquid Drop Model The fourth term is due to the symmetry energy. In the absence of Coulomb forces, the nucleus prefers to have N ≈ Z and has a quantummechanical origin, depending on the exclusion principle. The last term is due to the pairing energy and reflects the fact that the nucleus is more stable for even-even nuclides. Use values given by Fermi to determine this term. where Δ = 33 MeV·A−3/4 No nuclide heavier than has been found in nature. If they ever existed, they must have decayed so quickly that quantities sufficient to measure no longer exist. Binding Energy Per Nucleon Use this to compare the relative stability of different nuclides It peaks near A = 56 The curve increases rapidly, demonstrating the saturation effect of nuclear force Sharp peaks for the even-even nuclides 4He, 12C, and 16O tight bound Nuclear Models Current research focuses on the constituent quarks and physicists have relied on a multitude of models to explain nuclear force behavior. 1) Independent-particle models: The nucleons move nearly independently in a common nuclear potential. The shell model has been the most successful of these. Strong-interaction models: The nucleons are strongly coupled together. The liquid drop model has been successful in explaining nuclear masses as well as nuclear fission. 2) 12.6: Radioactive Decay The discoverers of radioactivity were Wilhelm Röntgen, Henri Becquerel, Marie Curie and her husband Pierre. Marie Curie and her husband Pierre discovered polonium and radium in 1898. The simplest decay form is that of a gamma ray, which represents the nucleus changing from an excited state to lower energy state. Other modes of decay include emission of α particles, β particles, protons, neutrons, and fission. The disintegrations or decays per unit time (activity): where dN / dt is negative because total number N decreases with time. Radioactive Decay SI unit of activity is the becquerel: 1 Bq = 1 decay / s Recent use is the Curie (Ci) 3.7 × 1010 decays / s If N(t) is the number of radioactive nuclei in a sample at time t, and λ (decay constant) is the probability per unit time that any given nucleus will decay: If we let N(t = 0) ≡ N0 ----- radioactive decay law Radioactive Decay The activity R is where R0 is the initial activity at t = 0 It is common to refer to the half-life t1/2 or the mean lifetime τ rather than its decay constant. The half-life is The mean lifetime is Radioactive Decay The number of radioactive nuclei as a function of time 12.7: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay When a nucleus decays, all the conservation laws must be observed: Mass-energy Linear momentum Angular momentum Electric charge Conservation of nucleons The total number of nucleons (A, the mass number) must be conserved in a low-energy nuclear reaction or decay. 12.8: Radioactive Nuclides The unstable nuclei found in nature exhibit natural radioactivity. Radioactive Nuclides The radioactive nuclides made in the laboratory exhibit artificial radioactivity. Heavy radioactive nuclides can change their mass number only by alpha decay (AX → A−4D) but can change their charge number Z by either alpha or beta decay. There are only four paths that the heavy naturally occurring radioactive nuclides may take as they decay. Mass numbers expressed by either: 4n 4n + 1 4n + 2 4n + 3 Radioactive Nuclides The sequence of one of the radioactive series 232Th 212Bi can decay by either alpha or beta decay (branching). Time Dating Using Lead Isotopes A plot of the abundance ratio of 206Pb / 204Pb versus 207Pb / 204Pb can be a sensitive indicator of the age of lead ores. Such techniques have been used to show that meteorites, believed to be left over from the formation of the solar system, are 4.55 billion years old. The growth curve for lead ores from various deposits: The age of the specimens can be obtained from the abundance ratio of 206Pb/204Pb versus 207Pb/204Pb. Radioactive Carbon Dating Radioactive 14C is produced in our atmosphere by the bombardment of 14N by neutrons produced by cosmic rays. When living organisms die, their intake of 14C ceases, and the ratio of 14C / 12C (= R) decreases as 14C decays. The period just before 9000 years ago had a higher 14C / 12C ratio by factor of about 1.5 than it does today. Because the half-life of 14C is 5730 years, it is convenient to use the 14C / 12C ratio to determine the age of objects over a range up to 45,000 years ago.